Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. Physiologically, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Clinically, this manifests in an elevated serum creatinine. It can broadly be divided into two categories: acute renal failure and chronic renal failure.

  1. Initial symptoms may include the following:
  2. Unintentional weight loss
  3. Nausea, vomiting
  4. General ill feeling
  5. Fatigue
  6. Headache
  7. Frequent hiccups
  8. Generalized itching (pruritus)
  9. Later symptoms may include the following:
  10. Increased or decreased urine output
  11. Need to urinate at night
  12. Easy bruising or bleeding
  13. May have blood in the vomit or in stools
  14. Decreased alertness
  15. drowsiness, somnolence lethargy
  16. confusion delirium
  17. coma
  18. Muscle twitching or cramps
  19. Seizures
  20. Uremic frost -- deposits of white crystals in and on the skin
  21. Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas.
  22. Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
  23. Excessive nighttime urination
  24. Excessive thirst
  25. Abnormally dark or light skin
  26. Paleness
  27. Nail abnormalities
  28. Breath odor
  29. High blood pressure
  30. Loss of appetite
  31. Agitation.