Shock is a serious medical condition where the tissue perfusion is insufficient to meet the required supply of oxygen and nutrients. This hypoperfusion state is a life-threatening medical emergency and one of the leading causes of death in a critically ill person.

  1. Anxiety, restlessness, altered mental state due to decreased cerebral perfusion and subsequent hypoxia.
  2. Hypotension due to decrease in circulatory volume.
  3. A rapid, weak, thready pulse due to decreased blood flow combined with tachycardia.
  4. Cool, clammy skin due to vasoconstriction and stimulation of vasonconstriction.
  5. Rapid and deep respirations due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation and acidosis.
  6. Hypothermia due to decreased perfusion and evaporation of sweat.
  7. Thirst and dry mouth, due to fluid depletion.
  8. Fatigue due to inadequate oxygenation.
  9. Cold and mottled skin (cutis marmorata), especially extremities, due to insufficient perfusion of the skin.
  10. Absent pulse due to tachyarrhythmia.
  11. Pyrexia and fever, or hyperthermia, due to overwhelming bacterial infection.