The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related illness and injury

  1. The Design of Tasks. Heavy workload, infrequent rest breaks, long work hours and shift work; hectic and routine tasks that have little inherent meaning, do not utilize workers' skills, and provide little sense of control.
  2. Management Style. Lack of participation by workers in decision- making, poor communication in the organization, lack of family-friendly policies.
  3. Interpersonal Relationships. Poor social environment and lack of support or help from coworkers and supervisors.
  4. Work Roles. Conflicting or uncertain job expectations, too much responsibility, too many "hats to wear."
  5. Career Concerns. Job insecurity and lack of opportunity for growth, advancement, or promotion; rapid changes for which workers are unprepared.
  6. Environmental Conditions. Unpleasant or dangerous physical conditions such as crowding, noise, air pollution, or ergonomic problems.