There are few theraphy.
- Radiation therapy has been applied to RCC as both an adjuvant to surgical therapy and as a treatment for metastatic lesions. Palliative radiotherapy has been successful in treating painful metastases and is a good tool for pain management. It is not effective as a single primary treatment modality.
- Hormonal therapy protocols were based upon observations that progestinal agents inhibited the growth of renal cell tumors. Although early reports were encouraging, no studies have substantiated the initial results. Other hormonal agents, including tamoxifen, have proven equally ineffective.
- Chemotherapy in treating renal cell has been poor, although cytotoxic drugs are the cornerstone of therapy for most solid malignancies.
- Immunotherapy has shown some responses; however, evidence that any of them have had an impact on patient survival is lacking.
- Adoptive immunotherapy relies on activation of memory T-lymphocytes. Some favorable responses are occurring. This treatment is in the investigational phase?