The Bill of Rights is the term used to describe the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments limit the powers of the federal government, protecting the rights of the people by preventing Congress from abridging freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, freedom of religious worship, the freedom to petition, and the right to keep and bear arms, preventing unreasonable search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment, and self-incrimination, and guaranteeing due process of law and a speedy public trial with an impartial jury. In addition, the Bill of Rights states that "the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people," and reserves all powers not granted to the Federal government to the citizenry or States. These amendments came into effect on December 15, 1791, when ratified by three-fourths of the States.

  1. <B>First Amendment</B> – Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, and to petition the government.<br>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  2. <B>Second Amendment</B> – Right of the people to keep and bear arms. <br>A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.
  3. <B>Third Amendment</B> – Protection from quartering of troops. <br>No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  4. <B>Fourth Amendment</B> – Protection from unreasonable search and seizure. <br>The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  5. <B>Fifth Amendment</B> – Due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, private property. <br>No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
  6. <B>Sixth Amendment</B> – Trial by jury and other rights of the accused. <br>In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
  7. <B>Seventh Amendment</B> – Civil trial by jury.<br>In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
  8. <B>Eighth Amendment</B> – Prohibition of excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment. <br>Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  9. <B>Ninth Amendment</B> – Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights. <br>The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  10. <B>Tenth Amendment</B> – Powers of states and people <br>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.