Top 10 Most Infectious Diseases with Highest Death Rates

This is a list of human infectious disease case fatality rates (CFRs). A CFR is the proportion (percentage) of people diagnosed with a disease who die during the course of the disease. (Cf. mortality rate.) Values refer to optimally treated cases.

  • Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) = 100% case fatality rates
  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, Naegleria fowleri = ~100%
  • Smallpox, Variola major, malignant (flat) or hemorrhagic types = ~95%
  • Anthrax, inhalational = >93%
  • Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, Balamuthia mandrillaris & Acanthamoeba = ≥ 90%
  • Ebola virus disease (for EBOV “strain” outbreaks only: formerly Zaire Ebola virus) = ~ 83%
  • Lujo virus disease = 80%
  • Marburg virus disease = ≤ 80%
  • Ebola virus disease (for all types of ebolavirus outbreaks combined) = 60-65%
  • Aspergillosis, invasive pulmonary form = 50-90%